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Attenuata, Steno bredanensis, and Tursiops gilliy by Bullock et al. (1968). The auditory nervous system, mainly the inferior colliculus (IC), was investigated with both gross and microelectrodes. Considerable problems were encountered in studying this region, as the IC is set deep in the brain, and it was necessary to lower the electrode through a large amount of the well-developed cerebrum. In addition, the large size of the IC meant that the 125 μτη (gross) elec­ trode could not be in contact with a large proportion of the IC at one time.

B. Gross Evoked Potentials. Grinnell (1970) showed a very sharp peak in the IC "on" response of Chilonycteris at 63 kHz (Fig. 5c). There was also a sharp "off" response to tone pulses, which was tuned to frequencies 2-5 kHz below this. With an approaching target giving an upward Doppler shift, there is therefore a sharp "on" response to the echo fre­ quency of 63 kHz and a sharply tuned "off" response to the slightly lower frequency of the transmitted pulse. Grinnell showed a similar situation in Saccopteryx, another constant-frequency bat, but the curves were not as sharp and showed a peak at 40-45 kHz (Fig.

Since then, a similar relationship has been found in the hipposiderid, Asellia tridens, by Pye and Roberts (1970) and in the phyllostomid, Chilonycteris rubiginosa, by Schnitzler (1970). The function of these movements is not yet clear; they may be used to scan the environment in order to resolve directional ambiguities (Möhres, 1953), or they may produce additional Doppler shifts to increase the inherent directionality of the pinna, which is only 2-3 wavelengths across (Pye, 1960, 1963). The ear musculature has been described in detail for Rhinolophus by Schneider and Möhres (1960) and for Asellia and Myotis by Schneider (1961).

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