By Gordon C. Oates
Layout and R&D engineers and scholars will price the accomplished, meticulous insurance during this quantity, which, below the professional editorial supervision of Gordon C. Oates, beneficial properties the invited paintings of sought after experts in airplane fuel turbine engines.
Beginning with the elemental ideas and ideas of aeropropulsion combustion, chapters discover particular techniques, barriers, and analytical equipment as they endure on part layout.
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20, 1928, pp. 998-1004. 1°Dryer, F. , 1975. ]1Brokaw, R. S. , "Diffusion Flames," Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air, NACA Rept. 1300, 1957, Chap. VII. ~2Rao, K. V. L. and Lefebvre, A. , "Evaporation Characteristics of Kerosene Sprays Injected into a Flowing Air Stream," Combustion and Flame, Vol. 26, No. 3, June 1976, pp. 303-310. X3Lefebvre, A. H. , "The Influence of Turbulence on the Structure and Propagation of Enclosed Flames," Combustion and Flame, Vol. 10, pp.
Turbulence also causes increased burning rates in diffusion flames. 18 Analyses for turbulent diffusion flames are similar to the laminar case, but use an artificially high diffusivity constant. Physically, the increased fuel-air mixing is explained as due to forced mixing of small fuel-lean or fuel-rich elements of gas by turbulent forces. These small elements of gas are called eddies. The analytical adjustment, called eddy diffusivity, accounts for the enhanced mixing at the reaction front. This approach is taken as a convenience and is based on empirical correlations rather than fundamental principles.
Atomization The breakup of the injected fuel stream into small droplets depends on the dynamic pressure parameters listed above and, in addition, on the viscosities of the fuel and gas streams and on the interfacial tension of the fuel-gas system. The physical process of atomization of the fluid jet probably involves the production of waves on the fluid-gas interface, the shedding of long ligaments of fluid as the waves break, and then the breakup of the ligaments into droplets. The overall process is sufficiently complex that no model or set of scaling parameters has been generally accepted.