Download American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, by Roberta Ulrich PDF

By Roberta Ulrich

When the U.S. executive ended its dating with dozens of local American tribes and bands among 1953 and 1966, it was once undertaking an important social scan. Congress enacted this system, referred to as termination, within the identify of “freeing” the Indians from govt regulations and bettering their caliber of existence. although, elimination the federal prestige of greater than 9 dozen tribes around the nation plunged a lot of their approximately 13,000 contributors into deeper degrees of poverty and eroded the tribal people’s feel of local id. starting in 1973 and lengthening over a twenty-year interval, the terminated tribes, one after the other, persuaded Congress to revive their ties to the government. still, quite a bit harm have been performed that even this day the restored tribes fight to beat the issues created by means of these terminations a part century ago.
Roberta Ulrich offers a concise evaluate of all of the terminations and restorations of local American tribes from 1953 to 2006 and explores the iconic coverage implications for local peoples. this can be the 1st ebook to contemplate the entire terminations and restorations within the 20th century as a part of carrying on with coverage whereas detailing many of the person tribal adjustments. Drawing from Congressional documents, interviews with tribal participants, and different basic assets, Ulrich delves into the motives and results of termination and recovery from either sides.

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Extra info for American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006

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Citizens [giving up their tribal status] or re- m e n o mi n e e s 29 nounce their citizenship and be foreigners. ”23 When Laird raised issues related to the government’s treaty with the Menominees, Watkins dismissed them as irrelevant. The Administration was equally cavalier. H. Rex Lee, assistant secretary of the interior, told Laird there was no conflict between the Menominee treaty and the termination bill. “The tribal attorney told us no rights are affected,” he said. Watkins was in a hurry to get termination carried out.

Others just didn’t know what to do. Tribal members agreed on only thing — they wanted to keep Menominee land intact. 41 The state eventually did the real work of helping the Menominees make the transition. In 1955 the Wisconsin Legislature appointed a Menominee Indian Study Committee to determine the problems the tribe and state would face in making the transition. This high-level group, with University of Wisconsin faculty members doing most of the research, accumulated the detailed information about potential costs to the tribe of managing health care and welfare.

Deer described “an immediate clash of culture” with the arrival of the white manager from the Pacific Northwest timber industry. Before termination the tribe had operated the mill partly to provide members with jobs. After termination, faced with the necessity to pay taxes and make a profit, the new manager dismissed workers, often for things that previously had been overlooked. 7 The profit motive had other effects. Before termination, most people on the reservation had electricity from the nonprofit tribal utility.

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