By H.A. Barnes
Rheology is, by means of universal consent, a tricky topic and a few of the theoretical parts are frequently considered as being of prohibitive complexity by means of scientists with no robust mathematical historical past. There also are the problems inherent in any multidisciplinary technology like rheology for people with a selected education. accordingly, beginners to the sphere are often discouraged, and for them the present texts at the topic - a few of that are striking - are of restricted assistance due to their intensity of aspect and hugely mathematical nature.This e-book introduces the topic of rheology in phrases comprehensible to non-experts and describes the applying of rheological ideas to many commercial items and approaches. It offers an easy yet authoritative consultant which exhibits sincerely how arithmetic, physics and chemistry have contributed to the improvement of rheology. The everyday beneficial properties of all liquid-like fabrics are summarised, i.e. viscosity, linear viscoelasticity, general stresses and extensional viscosity. specific platforms are then mentioned, i.e. polymeric drinks and suspensions. the ultimate bankruptcy provides an overview of the theoretical advances which were made. constant notation and nomenclature were used during the e-book, and the main textbooks and guides on the way to allow the reader to stick to up specific issues are indexed.
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3 Dynamic methods: wave propagation A number of books are available which describe in detail the theory and practice of wave-propagation techniques. Kolsky (1963) has dealt with the testing of solids, Ferry (1980) has reviewed the situation as regards polymers and Harrison (1976) has covered liquids. The overall topic is usefully summarized by Whorlow (1980). 54 Linear oiscoelasticity [Chap. 3 Basically, the waves are generated at a surface of the specimen which is in contact with the wave generator and the evaluation of the viscoelastic functions requires the measurement of the velocity and the attenuation through the specimen.
Stress output for viscous behaviour. Note that although the stress is 90" in advance of the shear strain for the viscous liquid, it is in phase with the rate of shear. 6 Relationships between functions of linear viscoelasticity In previous sections we have introduced a number of different functions which can all be used to characterize linear viscoelastic behaviour. These range from complex moduli to relaxation function and spectra. They are not independent, of course, and we have already given mathematical relationships between some of the functions.
11 On-line measurements It is frequently necessary to monitor the viscosity of a liquid "on line" in a number of applications, particularly when the constitution or temperature of the liquid is likely to change. Of the viscometers described in this chapter, the capillary viscometer and the concentric-cylinder viscometer are those most conveniently adapted for such a purpose. For the former, for example, the capillary can be installed directly in series with the flow: the method has attractive features, but its successful application to non-Newtonian liquids is non-trivial.