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By J. B. Walter

Re-creation of this easy-to-read textual content has been up-to-date and revised to hide new details on clinical genetics, immune reaction, and comprises the most recent findings in AIDS. Acquaints the reader with primary points of area of expertise parts together with bacteriology, biochemistry, hematology, radiology, and surgical procedure. basically reproduced photographs, micrographs, and line drawings make clear thoughts awarded within the textual content

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This and similar recombinant DNA techniques, sometimes termed genetic engineering, have great practical as well as commercial possibilities; in the future, bacterial cultures will no doubt be used to produce human polypeptides and proteins — hormones, interferon, etc. T h e transfer of information by plasmids has been described above. Bacteriophages have also been used for a similar function. This type of genetic engineering is as yet in its infancy and, like all techniques, can be used for good or ill.

The inactive chromosome divides later than other chromosomes during cell division, and its descendants follow the same pattern. It occasionally happens that an individual has more than two X chromosomes, and in these cases the number of Barr bodies seen in a cell is equal to the total number of X chromosomes less one. Examination of the buccal smear is an important investigation in cases of chromosomal abnormal­ ity. Cells possessing a Barr body are also called chromatin positive, The Y Body. The Y chromosome selectively takes up the dye quinacrine hydrochloride, which has the property of fluorescing strongly under ultravio­ let light.

XX karyotype. The additional chromosome No. 18 arose by nondisjunction; its manifestations were incompatible with postuterine life. (From Lang, A. , and Gardner, H. : Trisomy 18 and cyclopia. ) For a more complete description, see Case History I. The Role of Genetics in Medicine and may be either male or female. The condition is Down's syndrome, otherwise known as mongolism (Fig. 3-8). This is always accompanied by mental defect, and the condition is quite common since such affected children are produced with an incidence of approximately 1 in every 600 live births.

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