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By Zafar Iqbal, Mervyn K. Lewis

Zafar Iqbal and Mervyn okay. Lewis fill the space in Western literature on governance concerns from the point of view of Islamic economics. Islamic and Western viewpoints are in comparison, and a scientific research of key components in governance from an Islamic perspective is supplied. the quantity attracts on classical Islam and modern assets to supply a finished Islamic governance framework to distinction with the Western place.

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Second, individuals are trustees (‘vicegerents’) on Earth for what they are given by God and must account to God in all matters pertaining to human behaviour. Third, the will of God to the viceregents on Earth has been revealed through a succession of Old and New Testament prophets (such as Abraham, Moses, Jacob, Joseph, David, Solomon through to Jesus), the last messenger of God being the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), the ‘seal of the prophets’. Fourth, the exercise of political authority is through the successor of the Prophet (political leader or Khalifa (Caliph)) or by the Muslim community (umma) in the form of popular viceregency.

While the modes of intra-community governance may differ, inter-community relations need regulation too in the spirit of common interests of mankind. Islam proffers broad guidance on all these issues as part and parcel of an ethical framework that constitutes the inner core or ‘the soul of governance’. 22 An Islamic perspective on governance Based on Mawdudi (1998) and other sources, the basic principles or ‘inner core’ around which the Islamic theory of governance is built can be summarized in the following terms.

It is no wonder then that most books on methodology of economics begin with the philosophy of science. The scientific method Descartes (1596–1650) is generally regarded as the founder of modern philosophy due to his commitment to the scientific method. It was with the intention of extending mathematical method to all fields of human knowledge that he developed his methodology or method of ‘Cartesian doubt’ as it has come to be called (Bertrand Russell, 1961). In the Discourse on Method (1637) and Meditations (1642), Descartes discards 38 An Islamic perspective on governance the authoritarian system of the scholastics and begins with universal doubt.

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